300 Years Of American Kitchen Design Development

Discover, American Kitchen History from 1700 – Today

Hello, … I am Joe, and I would like for you to take a walk with me through time and Discover 300 Years of American Kitchen. I made my living with renovating and restored Historic Homes for the last 20 years from what I call my home town in North Carolina. Therefore, I researched a lot on American Kitchen Design through History and here I am sharing some of my findings.

British-Empire-American-Colonia
British-Empire-American-Colonia

Further, can I assure you that if homeowners call me to restore their Victorian Style Kitchen (1900); they generally are more thinking of the “romantic perspective” and not about their actual functional Kitchen. And if you the continue to read you will understand why. 🙂

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The Kitchen of the 1700s

First you should know, that there is only very little information to go by for this time period. Because there are really no notations on Kitchens for the 1700s. if you wonder why? Well because for instance Brooklyn’s first houses, from those Dutch immigrants, of the late 1600s or early 1700s, had no genuine kitchen concept as we think of it today.

Pallant House Gallery and Historic site, Chichester, England c1820

Integrated in 1652, the Wyckoff Farmhouse in East Flatbush has a fireplace, in which food was prepared over the open fire, awaited pots, roasted on spits, or baked in the ashes. Meals and containers of water or other beverage were kept close by in freestanding hutches, or on racks.

1837 – 1901 Victorian Kitchen are on the rise

To prevent any contusion:

The distinction in between the Victorian and the Edwardian Era in its purest form is:

  • The Victorian Era was the time in which Victoria was on the throne (1837-1901)
  • The Edwardian Era was the time in which her kid, Edward VII was on the throne (1901-1910).
American kitchen about 1874
American kitchen about 1874

Lithograph depicting a woman working in a kitchen, circa 1874. Image via Library of Congress

We typically believe the innovation of the electrical fridge was the most splendid feature of contemporary kitchen, however we must truly admire the creation of the range. Prior to the range cooking was done over an open fire, the temperature level and speed of cooking managed by raising the pot greater or lower above the flames. The Oberlin Stove, a cast-iron cooking range that might burn coal or wood, was patented in 1834.

1834 The Oberlin Stove, was patented

June 4 1834 Berlin Stove Patentrd

June 4 1834 Oberlin Stove Patented Source

A new style of cooking is founded. This cast-iron cooking stove that could burn coal or wood,

The industrialization in the 19th century was an advantage to the kitchen area. It was throughout Victorian age that stoves, cooking area sinks with hand-operated pumps, warm water heating units, and gas lighting appeared in the cooking area.

Food accessibility and storage; kind of food; the absence of servants who made it possible for households to live and creativity in supplying water, fuel, and cooling. Even the introduction of central heating minimized individuals’ dependence on the kitchen range for warming your house. Victorian kitchens, those before 1900–mainly had not altered a good deal given that Georgian times in the early 1800’s.

1860 Catherine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe

Catherine Beecher (Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin) and Harriet Beecher Stowe published advice on the arrangement of the 1860s American kitchen as part of female education.

beecher-stowe-Kitchen Planing

Advice on the arrangement of the 1860s American kitchen from Catherine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Image via The American Woman’s Home

Varieties and kitchen area ranges in Victorian homes needed consistent fuel, even in the summertime– and the resulting heat in your home might be frustrating to the homemakers and servants charged with cooking. Water for baths and cleaning clothing and meals likewise needed to be heated up on the ranges, so there was no let-up with the heating requirements. It was hard, manual labor.

Kitchen, Point Ellice House Historic Site,
Kitchen, Point Ellice House Historic Site,

Everything to do with kitchen changed 1890 and 1920

The kitchen area restored, and this kitchen is normal for the Georgian to late Victoria duration. A ‘variety’ in the chimney, a cabinet, and a kitchen table was the anticipated typical requirements, though utilizing a table for cooking was back-breaking work. Kitchen Area, Point Ellice House Historic Site, Victoria B.C. An integrated variety was used for cooking and heating. This home was resided in by the very same household from the 1860’s through 1960’s and your home is open to the general public.

See: http://www.pointellicehouse.ca/.

Edwardian kitchen 1907 – 1910

Out of my restoration contractors view are generally speaking well worth bringing back. As those spaces can be easily through a good planed historical renovation include most whatever conveniences that we like and depend on in today’s kitchen design.

Edwardian Kitchen
Edwardian Kitchen Image Credit

The kitchen was not a place where design details were considered important to a home owner, but to the housewife, the cook, and the chef de cuisine of a large hotel, its layout and equipment were of the utmost importance. In the 1907 edition of Mrs. Beeton’s Household Management, noted that the requisites of a good kitchen were:

  1. Convenience of distribution in its parts, with in size
  2. Excellence of light, height, and ventilation
  3. Easy of access, without passing through the house (That’s why there is the backdoor)
  4. Walls and location set up that the smell and smoke could not travel through the rest of the house  
  5. Plenty of fuel and water, which, with the scullery, pantry and storeroom, should be easy to reach from the kitchen.
Victorian Kitchen-1911
Victorian Kitchen-1911

A kitchen from a 1911 J. L. Mott Iron Works trade catalogue. Image via The New York Public Library  the work table could be the forerunner of our Kitchen Island

American kitchen after 1920

kitchen cupboards c1905
kitchen cupboards c1905

Initial setup of kitchen cabinets c1905. Wood countertops and sink drains pipes prevailed to start with. Keep in mind the absence of the ‘toe-kick’ area. The flooring is patterned linoleum.

They had a fireplace or a ‘variety’ (a built-in-to-the-chimney range) like the Franklin Stove below. For cooking, a cabinet to keep china on, and a kitchen area table for cooking, at a back-breaking low height.

Franklin Stove
Franklin Stove Source

Refrigeration was primarily non-existent unless one was rich and had an icebox. Other types of food conservation were utilized, consisting of salting, and canning. Root cellars where dug out to keep potatoes and other products through the winter season.

Wealthier houses had iceboxes, a lead-lined cabinet with a block of ice listed below keeping food fresh in a compartment above. See Image

1920 Ixebox
1920 Ixebox

Some houses had dumbwaiters and speaking tubes.

 If a family was more modest, and there were no servants, the kitchen area looked comparable, solely with less and smaller sized.

Even tenements had kitchen areas of sorts, a range, and possibly a sink, which remained in the corner of the primary home.

Around 1900, all the things to do with homes were taken control of by an exciting wave of modernization. A brand new kind of real estate in the type of California Bungalows ended up being popular throughout North America. Street vehicles made it possible to purchase food from the supermarket in smaller sized amounts, making bulk food storage unneeded.

Battleship Linoleum Set Sail Around 1910

The flooring is Battleship linoleum, and the cabinets are based upon old styles from the 1908 to 1912 duration. Another design function is to make cabinets appear like different furniture pieces, and not link the counter at the back left, permitting an additional bank of hassle-free drawers, and a more ‘duration’ feel to space.

Below are a couple of linoleum samples from a 1914 to 1915 brochure from a Scottish linoleum business– global providers of linoleum, revealing a variety of printed linoleums ideal for kitchens.

linoleum from a 1914-15 catalogue from a Scottish linoleum companyI that aid wiyh KITCHEN DESIGN  DEVELOPMENT
Linoleum
Linoleum

Around 1900, all the things to do with homes were taken control of by an exciting wave of modernization. A brand new kind of real estate in the type of California Bungalows ended up being popular throughout North America. Street vehicles made it possible to purchase food from the supermarket in smaller sized amounts, making bulk food storage unneeded.

The City water linked (1900 – 1920)

The city water was linked to a lot of homes within 20 years (1900 – 1920) in the areas and cities, buildin  g wells and bringing water out-of-date. The water heater was connected to ranges, permitting warm water for both sinks and baths to be easily readily available. And ice boxes prevailed in houses, which were quickly changed by old fridges, which were presented in the 1920s.

1920 Kitchen
Victorian Kitchen-1925- 1930

Integrated with this development was the understanding of the need for much better hygienic and drainage disposal, both for the benefit and for health factors. Kitchen cabinets and counters were presented in the early years of the 1900’s.

Tops of shelves were wood first, which was a reasonable design transfer of the familiar wood from the kitchen table being utilized for freshly created countertops.

However, the mission for the very best counter leading began then and has not stopped to this day. Slate, linoleum, arborvitae, granite, quartz, stainless steel, and other product for countertops have been utilized as designers attempt to fix the countertop quandary.

First gas stove
First gas stove found on https://www.johndesmond.com

Warm Water Tank

photograph of a kitchen with gas burning range, connected to a hot water tank

An early picture of a kitchen area with gas burning variety is linked to a warm water tank, providing warm water to the kitchen area sink and the tub in other places in your home. By the 1920’s refrigeration was more typical, though, at first, it is hazardous, harmful gasses were utilized for cooling, till Freon gas was found a more secure option.

Painted Kitchen

A brand-new kitchen area in the design of an Edwardian kitchen, including all the modern-day benefits, is suitable for the age of the historic home.

Kitchens, now painted or “enamelled” in gloss white oil paint, were much easier to keep tidy– part of the new age of ‘hygienic’ areas that were compared to “the clinical tidiness of a surgical treatment.” And ‘toe-space’ under the cabinets was presented to the majority of kitchen areas. This useful development was declared to have been created by a Seattle business that happily stated, “This is development!”.

Kitchen from the 1920’s: white and sanitary. A major development from only a generation earlier.
Kitchen from the 1920’s: white and sanitary. A major development from only a generation earlier.

Kitchenare the centerpiece of our lives, and in lots of methods, the most crucial space in your home. Take a look at what functions may be initial in your home and see if you can include them in your conservation and restoration tasks.

Initial cabinets can frequently be hidden; therefore, they can sinks and tiles with some cautious care and attention. If you are unable to keep primary functions, they can typically be reproduced.

Sellers Kitchen Catalog
1923 Sellers Kitchen Cabinets Advertisement — Antique Home Style

Kitchenare the centerpiece of our lives, and in lots of methods, the most crucial space in your home.

For your historical renovation project you should take a good look at what functions are already present in your home. And see if you can include them in your conservation and restoration tasks.

Refinished cabinets can conceal brand-new gadgets, and a kitchen area can be developed that is ‘ageless.’ It will be practical and proper for the history and design of your home. It will not ‘outdate’ within a couple of years, needing another pricey ‘renovation.’ Listen to your home, and let it inform you what it desires.

The Kitchen Island

It all started out as a big work table, that was in the middle or to the side of the room. Later in time it developed into Kitchen Island as we know them today.

kitchen-c1909-ne.jpgThe-Kitchen-in-the-Taft-era-around-1909-Library-of-Congress-Harris-Ewing
kitchen-c1909 The-Kitchen-in-the-Taft-era-around-1909-Library-of-Congress-Harris-Ewing

 The more modest families, had no servants, and the kitchen looked comparable, solely and small. Even tenements had kitchens areas of sorts, a range, and possibly a sink, which remained in the corner of the primary home.

For the typical house, which had at least one servant, the kitchen was equipped in the simplest method possible. It was practical, the domain of the maid, and no outsider other than a trades-persons would ever come in. How different that was from today when everybody wishes to see your kitchen and hang out there.

The Frankfurt Kitchen Design Development of 1926

You might be shocked to understand that we owe our modern custom build kitchen to Austria’s first female designer, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. In 1926, she developed the “Frankfurt Kitchen,” the great-grandmother these days upraised, cabinets-and-countertops-surrounding-matching-appliances kitchens.

The Frankfurt Kitchen was the first build in kitchen system known. The devices and sinks at this time were still all on high legs and were different systems. The legs existed to make cleansing under them more straightforward, and the product of option for cabinets was steel. Countertops were typically covered in linoleum, likewise the most popular floor covering of the time.

1926 Frankfurt-Kitchen-Design

Elaborate patterns might be set up by utilizing strips like a jigsaw puzzle, and vibrant graphic prints were famous, some imitating carpet patterns or other sorts of surface areas. When the linoleum wore, brand-new linoleum was frequently presented over the old. It is not unusual to discover 5 or 6 layers of linoleum during a renovation.

By the time the soldiers returned from World War II, the modern-day kitchen was among the most recognizable signs of American middle-class life. The housewives of the late 1940s were barred with galore choices, all inspired by European Bauhaus architecture. They are driven by a mix of efficiency, smaller sized areas, new tools and great old American salesmanship.

1930 Frаnk Llоуd Wright Architect that designed the Prairie house Style

Trаnѕitiоn came with аn innоvаtivе ореn floor plan dеѕign and the peninsula

Peninsula
Updated Kitchen with Peninsula

The American Kitchen of the “40s

By the time the soldiers returned from World War II, the modern-day kitchen was among the most recognizable signs of American middle-class life. The housewives of the late 1940s ample of choices, all inspired by European Bauhaus architecture. They are driven by a mix of efficiency, smaller sized areas, new tools and great old American salesmanship.

A woman cooks in a small 1940s-era kitchen. Bettmann Getty Images
A woman cooks in a small 1940s-era kitchen. Bettmann Getty Images

These kitchen are streamline now, just  like the brand-new cars, and brand-new whatever was coming out of the post-war years. A kitchen was no longer a collection of freestanding pieces; however, a system with an area for devices developed into the kitchen cabinetry, which now covered the upper and lower walls of any sized kitchen.

Checking out a refrigerator, circa 1936. Image via Library of Congress
Checking out a refrigerator, circa 1936. Image via Library of Congress

Since the 1920s, kitchen had been trimmed down in size and growing more efficiency. And in the American cities and towns, a brand-new lifestyle was being presented.

Many people no longer had servants. Fridges, at this time without the exposed motors on the top, might likewise be fitted in to the kitchen cabinetry, developing a smooth and simple and easy work station.

1946 The First Microwave Oven Was Sold

American engineer Percy Spencer is generally credited with inventing the modern microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war. Named the “Radarange”, it was first sold in 1946.

First Microwave was named Radarange
First Microwave “Radarange”,

Likewise, modern food production is contributed by presenting frozen foods, condensed soups, cake blends, and other canned and packaged foods. Cookbooks rebounded, with every business from home appliances to foodstuff bring out a dish book. There was now no factor in mastering your brand-new kitchen!

1949 Embossed Linoleum Sheet Flooring

Embossed linoleum flooring in the popular No. 5352 pattern by Armstrong.

The 1960s From Dishwasher to Hand Mixer

  • The Dish-Washer

The dishwasher was created and hailed as a good time saver. Single  “Deep Freezer,” or freezer systems were readily available, although they typically got shunted to backspace, or perhaps a basement.

Likewise, the contemporary kitchen had toasters, mixers, electrical coffeepots and kettles, waffle irons, and other devices developed to make cooking faster and much more comfortable.

Image via Recipes for Your New Kitchen (1958)

Image via Recipes for Your New Kitchen (1958)

During the same time, modern food production is contributed by presenting frozen foods, condensed soups, cake blends, and other canned and packaged foods. Cookbooks rebounded, with every business from home appliances to foodstuff bring out a dish book. There was now no factor in mastering your brand-new kitchen!

The American kitchen of the ‘80s

The American kitchen was now the most pricey space in your house, a status it still holds today. The 1980s showed up to present brand-new sort of kitchen to customers: the open commercial kitchen area, and the mega-kitchen. Several things took place to bring this about. In our cities, loft houses started to end up being popular.

Open loft kitchen

When the houses of bad artists and other non-traditional tenants required a lot of area for their work, lofts in areas like SoHo and Tribeca suddenly ended up being uber-chic. Because these were frequently unfitted areas, without conventional walls, kitchen areas were as soon as again part of the home. Cooking itself had likewise ended up being stylish.

•	The American kitchen of the ‘80s & cheese Foundue
cheese Fondue

For the new “upper” class, cooking was viewed as a creative way toget-together. Food was now with all its natural components and the restored interest in excellent health, made cooking a brand new social selection factor.  

If you around my age you might remember Fondue Image above

The American kitchen of the ‘90s

If you weren’t in a position to live in a loft at that period, likewise gave us the mega-mansion, complete with vast kitchen area “fantastic spaces.” These kitchens embraced the idea that there are more, with substantial qualities, like countertops, cabinets, wine rack, breakfast spaces and large restaurant home appliances with modern devices.

Mega Kitchen
Mega Rustic Kitchen Style late ’89s early’90s Image Credit

A new love for all things stainless-steel and granite moves into kitchen. Open shelving is back, with meals, utensils, and food containers on screen. Everybody now desires a kitchen once again, after removing them for square video for kitchen cabinetry, or devices.

The American Kitchen after 1999 to 2020

During the last 20 Years that I was involved in countless Kitchen makeover I have seen the consumer appetite grow for the more luxurious styles and materials. Granite and Glass Countertops combined with all stainless steel appliances are in the norm today and Kitchen Island are not excluded from that.

  • Kitchen Cabinetry

And just as you think you can’t top it anymore… if it worked in the ‘60s why wouldn’t it now.

Cooking shows are deeply anchored in our minds and fill quota of Reality TV. As results you can find Hobby Chef everywhere and therefore we need a commercial grade kitchen and kitchen island to be adequate to our cooking style

One did not just cook a meal, now we created a culinary experience, and for that, you do need a REAL kitchen, a chef’s kitchen; a commercial style kitchen.

Commercial grate home kitchen
Image Credit Commercial grate home kitchen

2020 Upate Flatpack Kitchens Gain Popularity

Throughout the 2000s, flat pack Kitchen gaint on popularity omongs DIY Remodeler. Similar to IKEA furniture it is shipped in a flat pack. Basically you have to assemble your kitchen furniture yourself. In return you can minimize your kitchen budget and most suppliers offer ample of options to simply create and blend matching doors, bench tops and cabinets. In flat pack systems, lots of elements can be interchanged.

flatpack Delivery
flatpack Delivery

American Kitchen History Conclusion

Looking back through this time of 300 years kitchen history, it made me realize how much we should value, the things that we so much take for granted today. Heck,we even feel inconvenienced to flip a light-switch or complain about the cost of clean water & sewer or electricity. I lived in a home without power for almost a year did you?

Our ancestors where extraordinary people no matter what walk of life they came from.

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I hope you enjoyed this little stroll through history!

Next week we’ll be back with more ….. So stay tuned

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